The following environmental impact categories can be consistently found in our analyses. Hence, these categories were analyzed for all LEDVANCE product assessments.

The Global Warming Potential is an index to measure the contribution to global warming of a substance that is released into the atmosphere. The GWP is impacted mainly by the emission of greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). It was calculated for a time frame of 100 years. The GWP is measured in CO2 equivalents.

The Acidification Potential calculates the loss of the nutrient base (calcium, magnesium, potassium) in an ecosystem, and its replacement by acidic elements caused by atmospheric pollution. Acidification originates from the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Here the AP is dominated by nitrogen (NO2) and sulfurdioxide (SO2) emissions. In the atmosphere, these oxides react with water vapor and form acids which fall down to the earth in the form of rain or snow, or as dry depositions. This affects soils, water, flora and fauna, and can even damage building materials. The resultant ‘acid rain’ is best known for the damage it causes to forests andlakes. AP is measured in SO2 equivalents.

Eutrophication originates mainly from nitrogen and phosphorus in sewage outlets and fertilizers. Basically, EPis the build-up of a concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem which leads to abnormal productivity. For example, this causes excessive plant growth like algae in rivers which causes severe reductions in water quality andanimal populations. EP is measured in phosphate (PO43-) equivalents.


Beside the above-mentioned environmental impact categories, which are consistently found in our analyses, a multitude of other impacts have also been scientifically discussed. These impact categories were not analyzed for all LEDVANCE product assessments.

Ozone is protective in the stratosphere, but on the ground-level it is toxic to humans in high concentration. Photochemical ozone, also called “ground level ozone”, is formed by the reaction of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides in the presence of heat and sunlight. The POCP depends largely on the amounts of carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), ammonium and NMVOC (nonmethane volatile organic compounds). POCP, also known as summer smog, is measured in ethene and NOx equivalents.

The Human Toxicity Potential, a calculated index that reflects the potential harm of a unit of chemical released into the environment, is based on both the inherent toxicity of a compound and its potential dose. These by-products, mainly arsenic, sodium dichromate, and hydrogen fluoride, are caused, for the most part, by electricity production from fossil sources. These chemicals are potentially dangerous to humans through inhalation, ingestion, and even skin contact. Cancer potency, for example, is an issue here. HTP is measured in 1,4-dichlorobenzene equivalents.

This impact category records the abiotic resource consumption. The value of the abiotic resource consumption of a substance (e.g. lignite or coal) is a measure of the scarcity of a substance. That means it depends on the amount of resources and the extraction rate. ADP is represented by natural gas, hard coal, lignite, and crude oil. It is formed by the amount of resources that are depleted and is measured in antimony equivalents.

Particulate Matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles. Particle pollution can be made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. A multitude of health problems, especially of the respiratory tract, are linked to particle pollution. PM is measured in PM10 equivalents, i.e. p

The following pages provide information on the individual life cycle assessments of different LEDVANCE products. Please note that most of the environmental impact categories are only stated for the production process. The environmental impact of the use phase is very much dependent on the electricity mix where the product is used, i.e. the share of renewable energy or coal power.
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